The highest level decision makers on the science & research policy making are the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Council of Ministers, State Planning Organization (DPT), Supreme Council of Science and Technology (BTYK) and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).
|BTYK- Supreme Council of Science and Technology||TPE- Turkish Patent Institute
|STB- Ministry of Industry and Trade||TSE- Turkish Standards Institution|
|MEB- Ministry of National Education||TIK – Turkish Statistical Institute|
|TÜBİTAK- The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey||DTM- Undersecretariat for Foreign Trade|
|YÖK- Higher Education Council||TOBB-Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchange of Turkey|
|TÜBA- Turkish Academy of Sciences||KOSGEB- Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development Organization|
|DPT- State Planning Organisation||TTGV- Technology Development Foundation of Turkey|
|TÜRKAK- Turkish Accreditation Board||Turkish National Science and Research Structure|
|Turkish National Science and Research Structure|
DPT & TUBITAK are the two main responsible institutions regarding the science & research policy development process.
DPT is responsible for providing consultation for the government in the determination of the economic, social and cultural policies and targets including science & research, coordinating & guiding the implementations of the ministries and remaining public institutions' activities regarding the those policies, providing perspective for the private sector by eliminating the uncertainties regarding the medium to long term by defining the framework of macro-economic & sectoral policies & targets. DPT also has a role in the relations with European Union, by coordinating the socio-economic Cohesion Program, the investment part of Financial Cooperation Program and the Leonardo, Socrates and Youth Programs.
TUBITAK is responsible for supporting, coordinating, promoting, monitoring and carrying out research & development activities in the science & technology area and develop programs & projects for this purpose, provide consultation to the government on determination of science & technology policies, acting as the secretary for the BTYK, carrying out research on the strategic areas, establishing research centers & institutes, developing support programs for public sector and incentive programs for private sector, developing programs to improve the university-public-private sector cooperation, take responsibility on the international cooperation on science & technology, leading to increase the level of science & technology culture in the society and provide support to increase the number of researchers. TUBITAK is also the focal point for the 7th Framework Program of the European Union.
Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUBA) and TTGV are the following important actors in science & research.
TUBA advises to the government on science areas and scientists. TUBA recently conducted a foresight study on basic sciences.
Turkish Technology Development Foundation (TTGV) is the most important NGO in the science and research sector. TTGV provides credits for the R&D projects of private firms, and has an important experience on the private sector needs. Other than private sector funding, TTGV participates as one of the main actors in planning process.
While DPT, TUBITAK, TUBA and TTGV could be called as the primary actors of the policy making process, there are many other actors involve in the process,
These actors can be grouped as; the actors carry out the research, the actors provide technical support for the research activities and the actors provide financial support for the actors carry out research.
Research Institutions of TUBITAK, i.e. Marmara Research Center (MAM) and National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology (UAKAE), Research and Development Institute of Defense Industry (SAGE), Universities: There are 53 Public Universities, 24 (non-profit) Foundation Universities and no (profit-based) private universities. Higher Education Council coordinates the universities. Inter-universities Council is responsible for the coordination & evaluation of research activities of universities, Turkish Atomic Energy Institution (TAEK) carries out research on nuclear technology and safety.
National Boron Research Institute (BOREN) carries out and also coordinates the research on boron and related compounds, which is strategic and abundant in Turkey.
General Directorate of Agricultural Research under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.
Research Units of other Ministries and Institutions
R&D Firms in the Technology Development Regions,
R&D units of private firms, which are in limited number in Turkey.
Technical & Administrative Supporters of Researchers
Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK) is responsible for producing the statistics on science & research and currently coordinate an ad-hoc working group on harmonization of Turkish R&D statistics with the international system described with Oslo-Frascati-Canberra Manuals, Turkish Patent Institute (TPE) is responsible for intellectual & property right issues, National Metrology Institute (UME) provides software, equipment and prototype production services to industry, Turkish Accreditation Agency (TURKAK), Umbrella institutions of private sector, such as Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB), Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association (TUSIAD), Chambers of Industry. These institutions regularly publish reports on innovation, science & research, which provide insights for the policy development, National Productivity Center (MPM), Quality Association of Turkey (Kal-Der)
Ministry of Finance provides tax reduction for the R&D expenditures of private firms by a ratio of 40% Undersecretariat of Foreign Trade (DTM) provides grant fund for the private sector. The support is on project base and DTM takes consultation from TTGV and TUBITAK on selection of the projects. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) provides grant fund for the private sector with DTM. Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) provides loan funds and provides financing for start-ups. Ministry of Industry and Trade, through its bounded institution KOSGEB provides funds for SMEs. Credit Guarantee Fund provides guarantees on SME loans for facilitating risk-sharing and lending among Turkish banks.